The Hashtag Economy

Hashtags are to the social web what emoticons were to Web 1.0 and TXTing. While both are forms of expression and sentiment, there is one subtle, but vital difference. Hashtags are not only part of online culture, they are defining a new era of communication on the Web and IRL (in real life). With over 140 million Tweets flying across Twitter every day, hashtags surface a method to the madness – the ability to group conversations into an organized timeline. But what started out as a way to index conversations in Twitter has now substantially altered how people convey, relay and discover information in and out of the popular nichework. The hashtag has also become an effective form of #selfexpression.

In social media, “x” no longer marks the spot, “#” is now the indicator for popular culture and all that moves it. In the social economy, the hashtag is an indicator of value in the Twitter information exchange. Each hashtag represents revolving markets with varying lifespans determined by the significance of the conversation and its continuously fleeting demand. Some last only minutes, while others endure for hours or days.

While many struggle to understand the value of Twitter, those who get it are literally changing how they connect and talk to one another. At some point, a chasm emerges between those who use Twitter and those who do not. In other channels where Twitter users and other non-users are connected, for example email or text messaging,  the culture of conversation becomes noticeably divergent. To begin with, Twitter users, like txters, are groomed to speak with brevity. Subconsciously aware of the character constraints of Twitter, communication is concise, to the point, with an emphasis on shortform bursts. This digital shorthand if you will is only part of what’s changing.  Digital anthropologists have long observed the impact of text messaging on the ability to write in longhand. R U surprised? Prolly not…LOL! Twitter will also become the subject of educational studies to prove that the culture code of communication is transcending status updates to affect everyday engagement. Specifically within 140-character inspired transmissions, the hashtag is playing an important role.

In 2007 I was inspired by a Tweet posted by good friend Chris Messina, who is now considered the father of the hashtag, in which he simply asked, “how do you feel about using # (pound) for groups?”

The Tweet led to a series of conversations within the Twitterverse with thoughts from the likes of Stowe Boyd, Chris Heuer, Stephanie Booth, Brian Oberkirch, among many others. I too joined the conversation, stating that #hashtags would create channels that “will improve the Twitter experience.” At the time, the ability to search Twitter was in its infancy with Summize, later acquired by Twitter, providing the ability to surface relevant conversations. Unlike Groups, hashtags were meant to organize conversations in the stream. The introduction of the “#” also introduced a psychological phenomenon where people consciously injected a word or expression that indexed the Tweet and ultimately entire threads.

As Messina stated in the comments to my original post on the subject, “I think you’ve captured the sociologically component of this discussion really well. I’m most interested in getting lots of people’s feedback on this idea since it seems that, from the conversations I’ve had with Twitter folks, they’re looking at implementing the older, more explicit model of groups that I think would actually encumber the system considerably.”

Yes, as Messina’s comment states, Twitter originally considered creating formal groups. It later introduced the ability to create lists, which focused on curated streams based on individuals rather than topics. Hashtags weren’t invented over night however. I think back to something that Chris Heuer wrote in a post in 2005 about the need for what he termed “tagspaces.” He defined this classifier as “…the glue between people identifying something and those seeking it out…”

Messina’s Tweet, his published work, and the ensuing community dialog and collaboration helped to solidify the hashtag’s position in the Twitterverse with almost equal status of the now pervasive “@” symbol. In its own right the “@” is now officially the universal symbol for engagement which extends well beyond Twitter. It’s now the standard engagement in Facebook, email, and any digital conversation thread. But back to the hashtag. What started as a form of indexing later evolved into a form of declaration, sentiment, sarcasm, inner monologue, or subconscious, but stated, expression #thinkingaloud.

Hashtags have also had a cultural impact on society. In March of 2009, I ran a live experiment at DEMO and SXSW to see what would happen if I introduced a real-life hashtag moment into the flow of everyday conversation. For example, if I were to make a statement, I would end with an emphatic point to classify the conversation or to express an intentional undertone. I would then cross two fingers on top of each other in the form of hashtag to see how people responded. In every case, people reacted immediately with “HASHTAG! A gang (hand) sign for social media!”  Like popular RT memes on Twitter, the hashtag hand sign flew across the social web fueled by twitpics of what would eventually become the calling card of the “Hashtag Mafia.” #brilliant. In the days leading up to SXSW 2009, the hang sign officially made the SXSW Bingo card. Today, the hand sign is part of Twitter culture, flashed by the Twitterati as part of daily dialogue and proudly displayed as a badge of belonging.

Hashtags are evolving and as such, continually attract studies. The New York Times investigated the marvel of hashtags and for the most part, captured the essence of this powerful expression mark. However, there are also parts of the discussion that equally miss its brilliance. For example, comparing hashtags to “air quotes” is oversimplified. The psychology behind it is incredibly deep, diverse and worthy of study as is the sociology of Twitter’s mircro global community. Ashley Parker, the author of the article, inexactly classifies the hashtag as Twitter’s secret handshake. In fact, it is nothing less than Twitter’s signature. It is the equivalent of punctuating a thought or experience.

Hashtags are no longer bound to Twitter. They traverse the channels for all forms of communication. Hashtags are now embedded in the fabric of our digital lifestyle and enlivened in our expressions. Although the value of hashtags are in the eye of the beholder, they are special. As such, they are not easily manipulable. Hashtags must possess cultural relevance to connect at an intellectual or emotional level before they can trigger the A.R.T of social media (actions, reactions, or transactions). Hashtags aren’t to be branded, they are to to be relatable. #hashtag that!

Welcome to the #hashtageconomy

Connect with Brian Solis on Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook


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  • http://twitter.com/Claremontcomms Ben Caspersz

    It is difficult to comprehend just what total bullsh*t this is:  

    “Today, the hand sign is part of Twitter culture, flashed by the Twitterati as part of daily dialogue and proudly displayed as a badge of belonging.”

    Wake up, smell the coffee, step out of your bubble and realise this is utter, utter crap.

    • Wtf

       I’m not sure I’d like to step into your bubble…

    • http://tdhurst.com/ tdhurst

      I have never, ever, ever, ever, ever seen anyone I’ve ever met via Twitter or indirectly thanks to twitter, flash me a hand sign signifying a hashtag.

      And if they did, I’d ridicule them into submission.

    • Dave Allen

      Ben, I feel your pain. My beef is that the Digital Anthropologists that Brian mention, homed in on texting as a truncated form of longhand, but appear to have missed the fact that during World War 1 soldiers did the same thing using telegrams to save money on the number of letters used. Anthropology goes back way further than the 80′s, and I mean the 1980′s..

    • http://www.briansolis.com/ briansolis

      Dave, I’m confused. Using the logic in this comment, let’s go back in time to WW1. Someone writes about how WW1 soldiers are using telegrams to communicated in a truncated language. It’s an interesting article as it opens the eyes of everyday people how certain individuals are uniquely communicating with one another. But then the essence of the article is missed as the piece is subjected to commentary about how WW1 soldiers weren’t the first to communicate that way as the revolutionaries before them did the same thing with the medium of the moment. Of course there’s history. Of course there’s anthropology. This post is was written to provide a bit more history and context around the Twitter hashtag in response to an incredibly narrow view published in the New York Times. You should read one first…not only is it incorrect and incomplete, the standards are below solid journalism, which is already well below the working standard of the NYT.

    • jtoddtorg

      So Twitter users and their “in-crowd” vernacular is the equivalent of WW1 soldiers keeping secrets from the enemy?

  • http://www.breakbumper.tv Ramon B. Nuez Jr.

    In all honesty I never thought of the #hashtag as anything more than a tool to follow a conversation. I know that the #hashtag is an invaluable tool — giving you the ability to not only lump conversations into a “group” but the added opportunity to quickly become part of the conversation.

    Yeah, I guess the #hashtag is an invaluable tool of the social network — I mean how else would conversations within @Twitter be segmented, Twitter Lists? Sure Lists do a nice job but they do not capture the entire conversation within the space.

    Granted we see the #hashtag at events but I am also seeing SMBs use hashtags to promote the business, product or service. Yep, @briansolis is right — “The Hashtag Economy.”

  • http://twitter.com/jonmanilenio Jon Tanpoco

    i use twitter but i’ve always wondered what the hashtag was for… :D.  i guess i still don’t get it ;D

  • http://twitter.com/stsupery St. Supery Winery

    What is a good tool for tracking the reach and impressions of a hashtag over a period of 2 weeks or so?

  • http://regjackonline.com Reginald Jackson

    I think Twitter is going to need a website just to keep up with all the hashtags that are out now!

  • http://socialmedia.virtualassistant.org/ Social Media Marketing

    Thanks for sharing this issue with your readers.  Hashtags have been massively use in Twitter.  I don’t really understand how it benefit the Twitter users. But I do like how you present hashtag in your article especially the Brian Hashtag hand sign. I really like the hashtag gesture.

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    It is best way to criteria of the economy and Social Web to many section and get more and more knowledge.

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  • http://twitter.com/stevegarfield Steve Garfield

    I’ve never seen anyone use the #hashtag hand sign. Did you add that part in there to see if anyone  read this all the way through? :-) See you in Austin.

    • http://www.briansolis.com/ briansolis

      LOL. There are so many shots of the hand sign on Flickr and Facebook…it’s fascinating! See you in Austin my friend!

    • http://twitter.com/stevegarfield Steve Garfield

      OK, see you there. I’m going to be on the lookout for the hashtag sign in real life. I think people only pose, making the sign, for Flickr and Facebook photos.

  • Anonymous

    This is a fantastic blog entry.  The more I tweet the more I seem to realize that within this 140 character world of communication exists a wonderful world of innovation and creativity.  Brian…I thank you for all of your hard work.  The knowledge that you have been sharing has been invaluable to my development of digital autonomy and has opened up a new area of pursuit that I’m enjoying very much.

    My best,

    Siddhartha Finch
     

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ABOUT ME

Brian Solis is a digital analyst, anthropologist, and also a futurist. In his work at Altimeter Group, Solis studies the effects of disruptive technology on business and society. He is an avid keynote speaker and award-winning author who is globally recognized as one of the most prominent thought leaders in digital transformation.

His most recent book, What's the Future of Business: Changing the Way Businesses Create Experiences (WTF), explores the landscape of connected consumerism and how business and customer relationships unfold in four distinct moments of truth. His previous book, The End of Business as Usual, explores the emergence of Generation-C, a new generation of customers and employees and how businesses must adapt to reach them. In 2009, Solis released Engage, which is regarded as the industry reference guide for businesses to market, sell and service in the social web.

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